Published time: 01 May 2020
Authors: Maryam Ebadi, Aldo J. Montano-Loza
Keywords: pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, vitamin D, ACE2
Abstract : A novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a global dramatic pandemic that is immeasurably impacting our communities. Considering massive health and economic burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, any means by which to improve the condition of patients to accelerate recovery and to reduce the risk of deterioration and death would be considered of significant clinical and economical importance. In patients with COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the respiratory tracts of infected patients to enter host cells . At early stages of the disease, protective immune response is responsible for eliminating virus and, therefore, strategies to improve immune responses are of importance. As disease progresses, lung inflammation and fibrosis occur due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin (IL)-1B and IL-18 by activated macrophages and type 1 T helper (Th1) immune cells . Older patients and those that are immunocompromised are at the higher substantial risk . Unfortunately, current knowledge gap on human immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is a critical barrier for treating the disease; however, potential immunomodulators may help alleviate severity and improve outcomes.
Perspective improving vitamin D status in the management of COVID-19