While the first COVID-19 case in the world was identified in December 2019, the number of countries and people affected by this disease is increasing day by day. However, the World Health Organization declared this disease as a pandemic that affected the world in March 2020.
For this reason, this period we are in makes it very important to communicate effectively and accurately. Some words that we did not know before, but frequently heard in recent months, have entered our lives in the news, articles, and articles about coronavirus. It is important that this vocabulary used is understood by anyone concerned or not, and that all documents have a consistent terminology.
This dictionary that we prepared is designed as a tool for language experts and those responsible for disseminating information in the context of this epidemic and is planned to have a dynamic structure that will be updated and developed regularly.
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are a class of medication used primarily for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure. They work by causing relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume, which leads to lower blood pressure and decreased oxygen demand from the heart.
An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune system does not recognize the substance, and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or pollen. An antigen may also form inside the body.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms. A condition might be asymptomatic if it fails to show the noticeable symptoms with which it is usually associated. Asymptomatic infections are also called subclinical infections.
They are viruses that can infect mainly bats, but can also infect other species, such as humans, camels and rabbits, and come from the bat gene pool.
An estimate of the risk of mortality from a contagious disease. The CFR is calculated by dividing the number of deaths caused by a disease by the number of cases of that disease in a given time period. The CFR is time and location-dependent, and many different factors can influence the CFR, such as speed of diagnosis of cases, health system capacity, age, and other demographic characteristics, among others.
A person who may be at risk of a contagious disease because of their proximity or exposure to a known case. Exact definition of close contact differs by disease; for COVID-19, the CDC defines a close contact as anyone who has been within 6 feet of a person infected with the virus for a prolonged period of time, or has had direct contact with the infected person’s secretions.
A measure preventing anyone from leaving a defined geographic area, such as a community, region, or country infected by a disease to stop the spread of the disease.
A family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). The novel coronavirus recently discovered has been named SARS-CoV-2 and it causes COVID-19.
The name of the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and is short for “Coronavirus Disease 2019.”
Relating to the 2020 Covid-19 virus: Someone who ignores the warnings regarding public health or safety.
A severe immune reaction in which the body releases too many cytokines into the blood too quickly. Cytokines play an important role in normal immune responses, but having a large amount of them released in the body all at once can be harmful. A cytokine storm can occur as a result of an infection, autoimmune condition, or other disease. It may also occur after treatment with some types of immunotherapy. Signs and symptoms include high fever, inflammation (redness and swelling), and severe fatigue and nausea. Sometimes, a cytokine storm may be severe or life threatening and lead to multiple organ failure.
A disease cluster is an unusually high incidence of a particular disease or disorder occurring in close proximity in terms of both time and geography. Typically, when clusters are recognized, they are reported to public health departments in the local area. If clusters are of sufficient size and importance, they may be re-evaluated as outbreaks. The 1854 cholera outbreak which occurred in London is a classic example of such a cluster.
It is the process of killing microorganisms in the inanimate environment or stopping their reproduction. Chemical substances used for this purpose are called disinfectants.
An inanimate object that can be the vehicle for transmission of an infectious agent (e.g., bedding, towels, or surgical instruments). There is evidence that coronavirus spreads via fomites although, this is a less common route of transmission.
A sufficient number of people in the community are collectively developing immunity to any infection. To provide herd immunity, the required immunity rate in the population must be 70-80 percent. If it cannot be vaccinated, the only way to create this immunity is to get the majority of the population to the disease.
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat malaria in areas where malaria remains sensitive to chloroquine. It is taken by mouth. It is also being studied as a treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
It is a complex system that forms the defense mechanism against diseases in a living being, recognizes and destroys pathogens and tumor cells, protects the body from foreign and harmful substances. In short, it is a defense shield that protects the body against diseases.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. In a typical infectious disease, incubation period signifies the period taken by the multiplying organism to reach a threshold necessary to produce symptoms in the host.
Check out this page for detailed information about the coronavirus incubation period.
The person who has the infection.
An infection occurs when a microorganism enters a person’s body and causes harm.
A procedure that’s used when you can’t breathe on your own. Your doctor puts a tube down your throat and into your windpipe to make it easier to get air into and out of your lungs. A machine called a ventilator pumps in air with extra oxygen. Then it helps you breathe out air that’s full of carbon dioxide (CO2). This is called mechanical ventilation. It helps keep your oxygen and CO2 at healthy levels.
Separating sick people with a contagious disease from those who are not sick.
Isopropyl alcohol, also known as isopropanol; clear, the mixture of ethanol and acetone has an odor; It is a type of alcohol that can be used in household and industrial areas, has a cleaning and stain removing a feature.
They are small and single-celled creatures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae, and protozoa are basic microorganisms. Mushrooms, mosses, lichens are also microorganisms, but they look like normal plants because they have differentiated cells and/or merged cells. There are no such cells in bacteria and yeasts that have joined or differentiated in this way.
Refers to the state of being mortal (destined to die). In medicine, a term also used for death rate, or the number of deaths in a certain group of people in a certain period of time. Mortality may be reported for people who have a certain disease, live in one area of the country, or who are of a certain gender, age, or ethnic group.
Permanent changes in the DNA or RNA sequence within a living thing’s genome. An organism with a mutation is called a mutant.
Personal protective equipment that is used to protect the wearer from airborne particles and from liquid contaminating the face.
Rooms specifically designed for patients with contagious diseases that contain any circulating air in the room and prevent it from being released into any other part of the hospital.
An epidemic that has spread over several countries/continents, usually affecting a large number of people.
All kinds of organisms and substances that cause disease. This term is mostly used for structures that impair the functioning and cell integrity of multicellular organisms; however, there are also pathogens that affect single cells.
Two main tests are used to detect new types of coronavirus. One of them is the tests known as rapid diagnosis test. The tests that require devices are called PCR tests. PCR, which stands for “Polymerase Chain Reaction”, is a molecular biology method in which DNA replicating enzymes used by living things are used in vitro to reproduce only a certain part of DNA. Apart from other uses, it can also be used to detect whether a creature or gene is present in the environment because it can quickly make millions of copies and is specific to a particular DNA region. A specialized method, called qRT-PCR, is often used to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2. The PCR technique is more accurate than the tests called “fast kit” but it takes longer time.
According to Tayfun Uzbay, Professor from Üsküdar University, PCR tests are considered as the primary diagnostic tests and reveal the identity of the virus. Therefore, the reliability of PCR tests is higher than rapid diagnostic tests.
PPE is equipment that will protect the user against health or safety risks at work. It can include items such as safety helmets, gloves, eye protection, high-visibility clothing, safety footwear and safety harnesses. It also includes respiratory protective equipment (RPE)
It is a method to be applied by transplanting antibodies against this virus in the blood of people who have recovered from Covid-19, especially those who are struggling with the disease and especially in severe situations. The symptoms of people who will donate blood should disappear completely 14 days before donation. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that plasma therapy is one of the potential treatments for Covid-19.
An infection in one or both lungs. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi cause it.The infection causes inflammation in the air sacs in your lungs, which are called alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe.
A medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis. This includes the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum that is resistant to chloroquine when artesunate is not available. While sometimes used for restless legs syndrome, quinine is not recommended for this purpose due to the risk of side effects.
After the COVID-19 epidemic, it has been claimed to be used for therapeutic purposes, but it has no scientific reality.
A broad-spectrum antiviral medication developed by the American biopharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences. It is a nucleotide analog, specifically an adenosine analogue, which inserts into viral RNA chains, interfering with viral replication by causing their premature termination. Remdesivir was originally developed to treat Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease but was ineffective for these viral infections. It has demonstrated anti-viral activity against several RNA viruses including SARS coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, among others.
As of 2020, remdesivir is being studied as a possible treatment for COVID-19. In April 2020, preliminary results showed remdesivir may reduce the time to recovery for people with advanced COVID‑19.
Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by the body’s response to an infection. The body normally releases chemicals into the bloodstream to fight infection. Sepsis occurs when the body’s response to these chemicals is out of balance, triggering changes that can damage multiple organ systems.
It is a frequent medical blood test when a disease is suspected, such as infection and blood-borne hepatitis. The purpose of the serology testing is to find out whether the body produces antibodies against a number of microorganisms (microbes) such as virus bacteria and parasites. It is frequently preferred in terms of easy application and results in a short time. As a result of the researches, the disease is diagnosed and treated.
Check out this article for detailed information.
Shelter in Place
Shelter in place means finding a safe location indoors and staying there until you are given an “all clear” or told to evacuate. You may be asked to shelter in place because of an active shooter; tornado; or chemical, radiological, or another hazard.
Occurring occasionally, singly, or in irregular or random instances.
Measures taken to reduce person-to-person contact in a given community, with a goal to stop or slow down the spread of a contagious disease. Measures can include working from home, closing offices and schools, canceling events, and avoiding public transportation.
A single contagious person that contaminates a disproportionately large number of people compared to the number of people contaminated by the average contagious person.
A dynamic process involving the activities of collecting, managing, analyzing and reporting data on events occurring in a particular population.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.
A device that delivers air into the lungs through a tube that is placed into the mouth or nose and down into the windpipe.
The study of viral – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat– and virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology is considered to be a subfield of microbiology or of medicine.
The virus that originates from animals and can be passed on to humans.